General Insurance


D.A.F (Delivery at Front)

One of the terms of contract of where the seller undertakes to deliver the goods at a named place or point at the frontier (at the border between the two nations)

D.D.P (Delivery Duty Paid)

One of the terms of contract of sale where the seller undertakes to deliver the goods at the named place in the country of the importer and also pay the customs duty.

D.D.U (Delivery Duty Unpaid)

One of the terms of contract of sale where the seller undertakes to deliver the goods at the named place in the country of the importer, but that the duty for the goods shall be paid by the buyer.

D.E.F (Delivery ex Ship)

One of the terms of contract of sale where the seller where the seller has the responsibility to arrange shipment of the goods up to the destination port and bear costs as well as risk up to that point.

D.E.Q (Delivery ex Quay)

Similar to a D.E.F. contract but that the seller has responsibility to see that the goods are placed in the quay.


Robbery committed by a group of persons. Standard Burglary Insurance Policy issued to both business houses and dwellings cover loss of property arising out of a dacoity.

Damage by hooks, mud, oil or other extraneous substances.

Group of extraneous perils covered as an extension to the coverage granted under the marine cargo insurance policy subject to the Institute Clauses ICC © or ICC (B) on payment of appropriate additional premium. The losses grouped under this category are, damage by hook, oil, mud and contamination by any extraneous matters. The hooks used by the dock labour for moving goods in bales, rolls or bags cause extensive damage and loss of contents. Contamination by mud, acid and other chemicals is also frequent in respect of bagged or baled cargo.


Monetary compensation awarded at law for a civil wrong or a breach of contract

Date of issue

Date on which the policy, evidencing the coverage has been issued by the insurer

Days of Grace or Grace Period

Period of time after the due date of a premium during which the policy remains in force (when both coverage of risk is available and also the premium can be paid without any late fees).

DCDRF (District Consumer Disputes Redressal Forum)

Complaints against insurers for deficiency of service can be filed by the policyholders in the district forums where the compensation claimed does not exceed Rs.5,00,000/-. The District forums have jurisdiction over one or more districts.

Dead Well

A well that has ceased to produce oil or gas either temporarily or permanently.

Dead freight

When space is booked on a vessel but is not used by the party who booked the space, freight is still payable. This is called Dead freight. The right to such dead freight is normally exercised by the ship owner only under charter parties


The maximum weight in tons of the cargo, stores, water, fuel and crew, all put together which a ship can carry when loaded down to her load-line level.


Authorised agent of manufacturer for sale of the manufactured goods/vehicles


Termination of life as a result of an accident. In order that claim for such death is recoverable under the policy, the beneficiary should furnish to the insurer a death certificate issued by the concerned authority. Sometimes a post-mortem certificate may also be insisted to establish the cause of death.

Death Benefit

A payment made to the nominee or the legal heir of the insured under a Personal Accident Insurance Policy in the event insureds death.

Death Claim

Claim lodged under the policy by the beneficiary for the death of the insured or the insured person.


A bond that is backed only by the general credit of the issuing corporation. No specific property is pledged as security behind the loan.

Debris Removal Clause

The Clause, when attached to a standard fire and special perils policy, on payment of an additional premium provides cover for an additional amount, in excess of the limits prescribed in the standard fire policy, as agreed to between the insurer and the insured towards costs and expenses necessarily incurred by the insured for removal of debris resulting from an accident.

Deceptive practice

Concealment of actual fact. Eg. Insurance official or the agent giving impression to the prospect of some coverage being provided in the policy while no such coverage appears in the policy document

Deck cargo

Cargo carried on deck of a ship. Insurance on cargo is normally deemed to apply only to cargo carried under deck unless specifically incorporated in the policy to the effect that the cargo is carried on deck.


Statements in an insurance contract that provide information about the property or life to be insured and used for underwriting and rating purposes and identification of the property or life to be insured.

Declaration Clause

A clause which appears in marine cargo insurance open policy or open cover. This provides that all dispatches coming under the purview of the open cover/open policy should be declared for insurance without exception, whether arrived or not.


Refusal of an insurer to accept a risk proposed for insurance or to renew an existing insurance


The proportion of loss that the insured bears in respect of any claim. This will be in two forms, namely,

  • Amount of excess, which will be mentioned either as a fixed amount or a percentage of the sum insured or the claim amount.

  • Time excess by which the insured will not be entitled to the claim relatable to a specific period (usually number of days) stated in the policy

Deductible, period

Deductible to be applied in respect of each claim expressed in the form of number of days claim relating to which will not be payable under the policy.

Defeasible Interest

A term relevant to marine adventure. An interest that may cease to exist after commencement of voyage. E.g. an importer insuring the goods which he bought from overseas seller, although he is entitled, if the seller be guilty of delay or other default, to reject the goods, or treat them at seller's risk


One of the parties in a negligence law suit from whom the other party seeks relief for certain wrong complained of by the latter to have been committed by the former.

Defence Costs

Costs and expenses incurred by the defendant in a law suit in connection with defending the suit filed against him by the plaintiff (the party seeking relief from the defendant).

Dental Insurance

Coverage for dental services under a group of individual policy.


Decrease in the value of any type of tangible property over a period of time resulting from use, wear, tear, deterioration, and obsolescence.


A condition that curtails to some degree a person's ability to carry on his normal pursuits. A disability may be partial or total, and temporary or permanent.

Disability Insurance

A type of health insurance that pays a monthly income to the policyholder when he or she is unable to work because of illness or accident.

Discovery Period

The time allowed to the insured after termination of certain bond and policy provisions to discover that he has sustained a loss which occurred during the period covered by the contract.

Double Insurance

If the insurance policy is taken from more than one underwriter where period of insurance, subject matter of insurance and sum insured are same, then this is called double insurance.

Duty of Assured Clause: This appears in the Institute Cargo Clauses published for use with the MAR form of policy. It directs the attention of the Assured, his agents etc., to the duty (as required by the MIA, 1906) to take reasonable measures to avert or minimize any loss which is recoverable under the policy, also to ensure that all rights against carriers and others are properly preserved and exercised. Underwriters agree to reimburse the Assured for any reasonable expenditure incurred by his compliance with the clause, in practice, these expenses are termed "sue and labour" charges (see Sue & Labour).